Social enterprises and their ecosystems in Europe: the Comparative Synthesis Report now online
The Comparative Sinthesis Report of EU Mapping Study is now available.
Drawing on the findings from the 35 national reports, this comparative synthesis report provides an overview of the social enterprise landscape in Europe based on information available as of January 2020. This comparative analysis goes beyond the observation of social enterprise in each country to identify traditions, trends and challenges across Europe.
World Cooperative Monitor: new ranking of the largest cooperatives is now available. Focus on SDG 8.
The International Cooperative Alliance (ICA) and the European Research Institute on Cooperative and Social Enterprises (Euricse) published today the 2019 issue of the World Cooperative Monitor, the eighth annual one. The report explores the economic and social impact of the largest cooperatives and mutuals worldwide, providing a ranking of the Top 300, sector rankings, and an analysis of contributions to meeting the objectives of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
The 2019 World Cooperative Monitor collected data for 4,575 organisations (1,152 from Europe, 3,218 from Americas, 197 from Asia-Pacific, and 8 from Africa) from 10 sectors of activity. The Top 300 cooperatives and mutuals report a total turnover of over two trillion USD (2,034.98 billion USD), based on 2017 financial data.
2019 Results – The world’s top 300 cooperatives and mutuals operate in various economic sectors, but this year’s results show a larger presence of the insurance sector in the Top 300: insurance is 39%, agriculture 31.7%, wholesale and retail trade 17.7%, banking and financial services 7%, industry and utilities 1%, health, education and social care 1%. New this year is data on employment and cooperative types.
This year’s results show the largest cooperatives performing well, with only slight variations in the top positions across the sectors. In the Top 300 ranking based on turnover Groupe Crédit Agricole and Groupe BPCE, both from France, are placed first and second respectively as they did last year, third is the German REWE Group. And in the Top 300 based on the ratio of turnover over gross domestic product (GDP) per capita ranking, two Indian producer cooperatives reach the second and third positions: Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Limited and IFFCO.
Focus on SDG 8. This year’s report has a special analysis of the Top 300 and the eighth United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal (Inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all – SDG 8).
Three cases in particular related to SDG 8 are explored in depth within the report: Up Groupe (France), KRIBHCO (India), and SOK (Finland). Along with this analysis, featured within the section there is an interview with the Secretary General of CICOPA, Diana Dovgan.
This new edition of the World Cooperative Monitor goes beyond the Top 300 ranking based on turnover to further explore the dynamics of the cooperative movement. As highlighted by the United Nations, cooperatives make a substantial contribution to achieving the 2030 UN Agenda on Sustainable Development. In this year’s report, we see concrete examples of specific action undertaken by some of the largest from around the worldIn this year’s report, we see concrete examples of specific actions taken by some of the largest from around the world.
Bruno Roelants, Director-General of the ICA
Euricse Secretary General, speaking to the role of cooperatives in achieving the UN 2030 agenda said:
Cooperatives must take on (and communicate) a strategy for sustainable development able to represent an effective alternative to the mainstream shareholder model, able to comprehensively respond to present challenges. In fact the more organisations participate in reporting initiatives that enable the collection of reliable and internationally comparable data, the more research and analysis can be done to demonstrate the social and economic impact of cooperatives.
Gianluca Salvatori, Euricse Secretary General
About WCM. The World Cooperative Monitor is a project designed to collect robust economic, organizational, and social data about cooperatives, mutual organisations and non-cooperative organisations controlled by cooperatives worldwide. It is the only report of its kind collecting annual quantitative data on the global cooperative movement. 2019 marks the eighth edition of the annual research report produced by the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA) with the scientific and technical support of the European Research Institute on Cooperative and Social Enterprises (Euricse).
Euricse in Costa Rica at Americas Regional Conference
The cooperative of the Americas XXI Regional Conference “Cooperatives, economic actors with a social and sustainable impact” took place in San Jose, Costa Rica from 18th to 20th November, 2019. Ilana Gotz of Euricse was invited to speak during the Cooperative Knowledge Economy panel to present the World Cooperative Monitor, specifically focusing on the Americas region and the contributions of the Top 300 to the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
The conference emphasized change, impact and sustainability and consisted in both plenary sessions and workshops designed to engage participants in critical thinking around the main topics of each day. The key focus throughout the 3 days was on the UN 2030 agenda and how cooperatives can contribute as economic actors with a social and sustainable impact. The speakers presented research, innovations, cases, and concrete tools for working towards meeting the objectives of the SDGs. The workshops provided participants with ideas and solutions to bring back to their home countries and cooperatives.
Ilana’s presentation included some preliminary results from the 2019 World Cooperative Monitor, providing details about the American organizations in the dataset, most of which come from the USA and Colombia. The Americas make up 33% of the Top 300 with a total turnover of approximately 500 billion USD from organizations primarily in the insurance and agriculture/food industries sectors.
Ilana highlighted the need for data collection at the country level in order to be able to describe the economic and social impact of cooperatives. The research on the Top 300 and their contributions to the SDGs provides insights into the specific actions implemented, though the level of participation in the SDG reporting initiatives is relatively low amongst the largest cooperatives. As stated by the UN Secretary General, “without evidence of where we stand now we cannot confidently chart our path forward in realizing the Sustainable Development Goals.” Cooperatives must therefore continue to collect data and use the SDG reporting tools available, including the GRI initiative and UN Global Compact.
Social and solidarity economy, from Trento 30 recommendations for policy and research
The discussion about the study conducted by Euricse during the three-day conference organized by ILO
From 18th to 21st of November, a hundred experts on SSE from 26 States gathered in Mezzocorona (Trento) for the international conference “The SSE Momentum: finance for inclusion and the future of work. During 18 hours of plenary and parallel sessions, researchers, practitioners and representatives from governments and international organizations reflected on key drivers and trends, decent work and financial resources. On the last day, the final recommendations were presented to a high-level panel composed by government delegates from France, Luxembourg and Tunisia, the Latvian welfare minister and the chief secretary of the Italian Labour Ministry, Francesco Marsico. On 22nd and 23rd November there was the meeting of the UN Inter-agency Task force on social and solidarity economy (UNTFSSE) in Trento.
On the last day of the conference, the outcomes of the sessions were condensed into a document that was presented and discussed by a high-level panel of experts and policy makers from national governments and international organizations, moderated by the Director of the Enterprise Department at the ILO, Vic van Vuuren.
The conference in
186 ILO Country
100 people invited between researchers, policymakers, and SSE experts and practitioners from all over the world
30 members of
for policy and research
countries of origin (10 European, 16 extra-European)
18 hours of
conference in three languages (Italian, French and English)
sessions, 4 plenary sessions, 1 group work and 1 high-level panel
The World Cooperative Monitor mentioned during the UN General Assembly
During the 74th session of the United Nations General Assembly, held in New York from 17 to 30 September, the Secretary-GeneralAntónio Guterres mentioned Euricse and the World Cooperative Monitor – published annually together with the ICA – in his report about cooperatives in social development. The report, requested by the General Assembly in its resolution 72/143, is focused on the role of cooperatives in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and includes an analysis of emerging issues and strategies for strengthening cooperatives in the light of the key challenges that they face in their pursuit of sustainable development for all. It also places particular attention on the role of cooperatives in provision of health care.
As the 10th anniversary of the International Year of Cooperatives approaches (2022), concrete examples of good practices of cooperatives working to implement the Sustainable Development Goals are also set out in the report.
The report mentioned our Top 300 ranking and the sectoral analysis based on financial data from 2016. In WCM 2018 we analyzed cooperatives on the basis of their contributions to the SDG as well, which the UN Secretary General also discusses in his report.
The 2019 Report will be released in December. Read the WCM report here
The conference will show the contributions made by cooperatives in different sectors and regions to sustainable development, including economic, social and environmental impacts. The sessions will highlight not only the achievements to date, but also the untapped potential cooperatives bring to development.
Euricse’s Ilana Gotz, together with the Secretary General, Gianluca Salvatori, will attend the conference, bringing a preview of the 2019 World Cooperative Monitor (WCM) report. This year’s Top 300 ranking will be released in October along with a report on large cooperatives and their contribution to SDG 8 – Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all (download the 2018 WCM here).
In Kigali we aim to share the work that goes into building the WCM and encourage further participation from cooperatives and federations from all around the world. We will also, as always, keep an eye out for new stories of cooperatives to include on Stories.coop.
The agri-food supply chain is a field of study that presents challenges for research. A fragmented approach still often prevails. Those involved in research in agriculture are not always in dialogue with those involved in distribution and consumption systems. The focus on individual segments and products sometimes loses sight of the overall picture. This is true even in the cooperative world, however paradoxical it may seem.
Therefore, the UCDavis & UC Cooperative
Extension initiative to convene the various components of the agri-food
ecosystem into a conversation on the potential of a cooperative model has been commendable.
California is a state in which quality agriculture plays a primary role and the
University of California Davis Campus is an ideal observatory for studying its
dynamics and prospects.
In that area of the United States, value-added agriculture and food products are increasingly popular and play a large role in community-based economic development. By this we refer to a broad array of products falling under the categories of specialty, local, sustainable, artisan, and organic, and may include an array of ownership models falling outside of the investor-owned category.
In recent years, there has been remarkable development in the awareness of the importance of a healthy diet produced with sustainable methods. And attention has also increased for the methods of agricultural production and transformation that support territorial development, in a virtuous link between places and agribusiness.
The Californian market has been at the forefront of this trend. But at the same time, the increase in this business area and in particular in the demand for organic products has led to the entry of new players, often coming from highly innovative sectors. This is exemplified by the rise of Amazon and its buyout of Whole Foods, a business platform that first empowered partnerships for local production and distribution. Amazon’s entry into the food retail sector specializing in organic and healthy products has the potential to transfer the same logic and methods that made it successful in e-commerce.
It follows that the pressure that this situation has generated on agri-food organizations providing goods and services produced by independent and co-op enterprise is considerable. The debate that has arisen between these actors is therefore particularly interesting, as they face a context that is both promising, due to the increased demand for quality food products, and challenging, with the entry into the scene of very powerful and potentially disruptive new competitors.
This was indeed discussed in the seminar organized by UC Davis in which Euricse participated, bringing the case of Italian cooperation in the agricultural sector and in the large-scale retail sector. The workshop convened and strategized around the role of key players – cooperatives and independents – in advancing a multi-stakeholder agri-foods value chain. The discussion focused on how the cooperative sector can successfully leverage their multi-billion-dollar networks of agricultural production, distribution, and consumer retail to further build a scalable community economic development framework with more equitable and sustainable food economies.
The meeting featured a keynote address by Euricse’s
Gianluca Salvatori, who catalyzed the visioning conversation with the case of
the Italian agri-foods cooperatives. In particular, the dialogue provided
critical insights into: knowledge and technology transfer (from the producer
level through the value chain to the retail level), the challenges and
opportunities of going big and cheap (vs. scaling local and small), and the integration
of agricultural activities with food processing and direct distribution (with a
focus on value-add in the form of food origination and quality).
The lively discussion – with the participation of entrepreneurs, food system experts, and community development thought leaders – contributed to uncovering the array of assets and opportunities available to California’s multi-stakeholder agri-foods system. Among the aspects that emerged, the interest in a greater collaboration – based on business but also scientific – with the Italian cooperative sector, especially related to the construction of production and distribution agri-foods chains.
11th International Workshop on Cooperative and Responsible Finance for Development: Call for papers
18-19 June 2020, Trento, Italy
Euricse announces the organization of the 11th Euricse International Workshop on Cooperative and Responsible Finance for Development. The workshop, organized in collaboration with the Department of Economics and Management of the University of Trento and Federcasse (Italian Federation of Cooperative Credit Banks), with the support of EACB (the European Association of Co-operative Banks), will be held in Trento, Italy on June 18th and 19th, 2020.
The current capitalist phase is unbalanced on the
financial side: capital allocation systems have progressively moved away from
the real economy and are no longer performing effectively and efficiently their
function. The growing separation between the prices of financial assets and the
source of the underlying value has increased market risks: the higher the
separation, the more difficult it is for markets to act in a morally
responsible way. Together with the degeneration of finance, the world of the
economy has shown a growing rapacity towards the other components of the ecosystem
(the natural, social, family, political, cultural world), directing and
exploiting it for their own purposes. Quite the reverse, a truly productive
economy and finance should be responsible, that is, concerned about the
consequences, i.e. the externalities, both negative and positive, not only
immediate, but in the long-term, of their activities.
Meantime the increasing thoughtfulness towards an
economy based not only on physical products, but also on relationships, combined
with demographic changes and the state’s fiscal crisis, open growth prospects
for activities requiring investments in health and healthcare, social and
personal services, online assistance, green industry, environmental protection
and property. This can lead also to a revaluation of the localized production
and of the domestic and community dimensions as places of economic activity.
The renewal of financial intermediation must therefore
go through the promotion of an economy where the value derives from
relationships as well. This entails a new conception and a redesign of finance,
where negative and positive externalities are included in the estimate of
produced value, and thus favour social value and surplus with respect to a
private one. Practically, this means to finance, besides technological
innovation, also social innovation — i.e. new solutions that are more
responsible and sustainable. Finance should therefore aim to strengthen the
relationship between supply and demand for capital, overcoming the separation
between investors and recipients that has been growing over the last decades.
Investors should have more knowledge of specific investment fields: the more assets
are aggregated by investment banks and global funds, the more it will be
difficult for investors to become aware of and to be willing to risk on
innovative and socially relevant projects. The ambition should be to channel
capital to creativity and to utility calculated in a holistic way: finance must
return to being “at the service” and not master. Hence, the need to
spread ownership and control of financial capital and not to concentrate them
is of outmost importance.
All this offers new potentials to cooperative and
ethical banks and in general to alternative funds and financial institutions.
However, during the twentieth century, governments and large private companies
have often supplanted in this sector organizations with social participation,
often accused, not always wrongly, of paternalism, non-professionalism or
bureaucratization. Moreover, their growth in size and membership may undermine
their values, dedication, and sense of belonging of the members. A consequent
work of reengineering cooperative and ethical finance requires some choices and
implementations within it that clearly signal: (i) what are its objectives,
consequent to the evaluation of what is productive and what is predatory; (ii)
which are its true stakeholders; (iii) which are its most appropriate forms of
governance and what is the selection process of its leading cadres.
The organizers are then inviting papers that explore the following themes:
New approaches and new institutions for responsible and sustainable
finance and investments.
The role of financial services and local banks for economic success in
regional and in global markets.
The concept and procedures of retaining or establishing
the link with local societies.
Ways to diversify the credit risk of local banks
without engendering their support of local communities.
on the management and the special role of cooperative banks in the economy.
Social venture investments, development finance, climate and green
finance based on private investors in a European and global perspective.
Cooperative and ethical banks’ engagement in social
finance to encourage sustainable development and social economy.
Governance issues for coop and ethical banks deriving
from consolidation, de-mutualization, re-mutualization and the use of hybrid
Searching for fertile ground for the diffusion of the
cooperative and ethical banking model: prerequisites, socio-economic
coincidence and need within and beyond the European level.
Fintech and blockchain technologies.
Workshop Scientific Committee
Silvio Goglio, University of Trento, Italy (chair)
Yiorgos Alexopoulos, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece
Giovanni Ferri, Lumsa University of Rome, Italy
Detlev Hummel, University of Potsdam, Germany
Panu Kalmi, University of Vaasa, Finland
Juan Lopez, Federcasse, Italy
Eric Meyer, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Gemany
The methodology of the workshop is interdisciplinary and integrative. There will be only plenary sessions in order to stimulate interaction, exchange of ideas and debate. The Scientific Committee will not only examine the papers by their scientific and innovative value but it will try to achieve a balance between the workshop themes. The accepted papers will be published in the site of Euricse.
A limited number of scholarships designed to encourage participation will be offered. For more details please visit our web site www.euricse.eu or write to organizational secretary email@example.com after February 2020.
All abstracts should be prepared in A4 format (Times New Roman, size 12
fonts, single-spaced) and be no more than 500 words length. Authors’ full
title, name, address, organization and email address should be included at the
end of the abstract. Abstracts are invited up to the end of December 2019 to
the following email address: firstname.lastname@example.org. The Scientific Committee
will carefully review the applications and advise the selected authors to
extend the abstracts into the full papers, which must be sent to the organizers
by the end of March 2020. The authors of accepted papers will be
notified by the end of April 2020.
For more information about the Workshop please contact: email@example.com.
EURICSE appointed as observer in the UN Task Force on Social and Solidarity Economy
A recognition of the Trentino research center’s international work
Euricse has been admitted as observer to the UN Inter-Agency Task Force on Social and Solidarity Economy (TFSSE) founded in Geneva in 2013 to raise the visibility of the Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) both within the United Nations and beyond. As observer, Euricse will actively participate in the Task Force’s debates, and will have the opportunity to provide feedback on the topics discussed. This recognition is even more significant in anticipation of the international workshop that Euricse is organizing in Trento in November on behalf of the International Labour Organization (ILO) on financial instruments for the social and solidarity economy.
Euricse was officially presented as
observer in the UN Task Force today during a meeting in Geneva, in which
Euricse’s General Secretary, Gianluca Salvatori, participated. Euricse has been
admitted to the TFSSE in light of the center’s ongoing international work and
frequent relationships with the International Labour Organization (ILO), the
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Organization for Economic
Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Co-operative Alliance
(ICA) and many other international agencies. Euricse has recently written two
research reports for the ILO on social and solidarity economy, with a focus on future
challenges in the world of work and innovative financial mechanisms for SSE
The TFSSE brings together UN agencies and other inter-governmental organizations, as well as umbrella associations of SSE networks as members and observers. Task Force activities include organizing events at UN and other international conferences, dialoguing with policy makers, preparing and disseminating publications through the newly created Knowledge Hub, and engaging in collaborative projects involving the TFSSE members and observers. The most recent achievement was the launch of the Knowledge Hub, a platform that gathers research on the potential of the SSE for the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) put forward by the 2030 Agenda.
Euricse’s presence in the TFSSE is even more significant in anticipation of the international workshop that the research center is organizing in Trento from the 18th to 20th of November on behalf of the ILO, which will see the involvement of many international experts on financial tools for the SSE. During that same week, the Task Force will also gather in Trento.
“The relevance of the SSE is expanding beyond the niche in which it is usually confined and the UN is playing a lead role in this area. For this reason, Euricse wanted to closely follow the work of the UN agencies engaged in the development of the social economy and we are proud that our positions and contributions were deemed useful. As observer in the Task Force we will be able to broaden our international approach and discuss our activities with a group of prominent experts”
Euricse Secretary General, Gianluca Salvatori
“We are certain that Euricse, thanks to the center’s long and varied experience in Europe and beyond, will lend an important contribution to the initiatives the Task Force is undertaking to enhance the visibility and recognition of the Social and Solidarity Economy at the international level”
UN Inter-Agency task force on SSE, the International Conference in Geneva
The General Secretary of Euricse, Gianluca Salvatori, participated on the 25th and 26th of June at International Conference on SSE in Geneva. This event is part of a series of conferences resulting from the Call for Papers “Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals: What Role for Social and Solidarity Economy?” launched by the United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force on Social and Solidarity Economy (UNTFSSE) in 2018. Salvatori spoke on a panel dedicated to “SSE and South-South and Triangular Cooperation“. The Conference was hosted in Geneva during the celebration for the Centenary of the International Labour Organization.
Below we are publishing an abstract of his speech.
The development of SEE through social urbanism
In Latin America – in countries like Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia – experiences have emerged through government programs, framed within the design and application of their policies public, developing strategies within the discourse of solidarity economy with the objective to improve the quality of life of people. Probably one of the most innovative and original aspects of the development strategies of a social and solidarity economy consists in the structural relationship with the policies of social urbanism.
Medellin has got 2,5 million inhabitants. Due to the violence in the agricultural areas, connected to the drug trafficking and to the threat of paramilitary and guerrilla organizations (like Farc), there has been a huge population shift in urban areas. In a few years Medellin has practically doubled its population. The new arrivals went to occupy the peripheral areas on the steep hills around the city.
Urban scholars and practitioners today look up to Medellin as one of the most progressive cities in the world. Winner of an impressive amount of awards, Medellin truly became a model to follow when it comes to addressing urban challenges like violence, insecurity, poor education, and lack of mobility, which all reinforce the spatial and material inequalities in our cities today.
A “methodology of partnership with the community” in order to upgrade informal settlements was followed by the two mayors, Luis Perez and Sergio Fajardo, who were elected respectively in 2000 and 2004. Investing in a cable car to connect the slums to the city centre was the first step, fighting the marginalisation of the populations living in the informal settlements (“comunas”) on hillsides of Medellin and representing half of the entire population of Medellin. Then followed the “integral urban projects” (PUIs) – “projects that incorporate multiple programs simultaneously, from transport to landscaping, from street lighting to cultural centres” – implemented between 2004 and 2007:
“the Parque Explora, a park with a free science museum in it;
the Botanical Gardens, site of the octagonal Orquideorama; ten new school buildings;
five ambitious library-parks in the comunas of Santo Domingo, La Quintana, La Ladera, San Javier and Belén;
a cultural centre in the run-down district of Moravia;
and the completion and extension of the Metrocable
Framed by the drug trafficking problem for almost a decade (1985-1993) – that reoriented in greatly measure the social structure, cultural behavior and in general the economy of the city. Then, a socio-economic crisis experienced between 1995 and the beginning of this century, with unemployment levels above 20% (1999), had a great impact as well. The “Plan Decenal de Economía Social y Solidaria para Medellín 2016-2025”, written by Gaviria Correo and Alcalde de Medellín, has no precedents in the country and involves all subjects that are part of this sector: Cooperatives, Mutuals, Corporations, Associations, employee funds, Pre-Cooperatives and Foundations, among others. The Decennial Plan is rooted on a wider set of public policies, starting from the early 2000s, that aimed to support the social and solidarity economy through an original combination with participatory local planning related to the “social urbanism”.
The Medellin case shows that tackling the complexities of peripheral urban informal settlements requires:
The investments in innovative mobility systems (cable car), renewal of educational facilities like schools and libraries and the beautification of public spaces, have gone hand in hand with strategies of intervention from the perspective of the social and solidarity economy.
The introduction of new governance models that, beyond the public and private dychotomy, recognize the importance and value of the ESS.
The strengthening of associative productive units (UPAS) of solidarity economy, with the objective of strengthening the business fabric of the informal settlements of Medellín through the generation of income and decent jobs.
“Social Urbanism” is the best practice that Medellin showcases in the international community, proving the positive impact of the construction of social infrastructure, which allows for an improved access to education, mobility, and safer public spaces. The Medellin experience has provided a role model for many other cities, specially in the Global South.
They contributed to one semi-plenary session chaired by professor Jacques Defourny entitled “Mapping of social enterprise and its ecosystem in Europe”, where they summarized the main findings of the European study funded by the DG Employment “Social enterprises and their eco-systems in Europe”. Professor Nadja Johanishova, professor Bernard Enjolras and Risto Raivio, Senior Expert at the DG EMPL, European Commission, also contributed to the discussion by providing their own insights based on the critical transversal analysis of the Mapping Study Country Reports.
Add to this, Giulia Galera and Paolo Boccagni (University of Trento) organized a special session aimed at discussing the findings of recent research on innovative welcome and integration pathways – addressed to asylum seekers, protection holders, refugees and migrants – that have been designed by grass-root social enterprises in four selected EU countries: Italy, France, Germany and Spain.
As highlighted during the conference, these countries show significant variations when it comes to the role played by social enterprises in the asylum and migration domains. Key variations concern the organization of welfare service delivery; the national model of reception designed by national governments to welcome asylum seekers and the degree of centralization; what selection mechanisms are used to recruit private providers; whether there are any national schemes supporting employment and labour market access of asylum seekers.
“Despite country variations, there are some common challenges that are faced by social enterprises. These are mainly connected to the increase in number of volunteers that are willing to help recipients, to the recruitment and training of new staff, and to the types of interactions established by social enterprises with public authorities”.
Giulia Galera, senior researcher at Euricse
Discussion focused particularly on the role, potential and limitations faced by social enterprises on the one hand and on the policy strategies that could be put in place to fully harness the contribution of social enterprises in facing social transformations connected to the inclusion of newcomers in receiving communities, on the other hand.
Here the list of papers discussed
during the session:
Good practice through diffusion: insights from asylum seeker reception in Italian social enterprises (Paolo Boccagni, University of Trento and Giulia Galera, Euricse)
The French reception system: constraints and forms of resistance from the local organisations. The case of Marseille (Giorgia Trasciani PhD Candidate, University of Aix-Marseille, University of Naples, L’Orientale)
Solidarity action in refugee housing: An example from Leipzig, Germany (Jennifer Eschweiler, Roskilde University, Denmark)
Innovations in social enterprises in the refugee sector in Spain (Carmen Guzmán , University of Seville, Spain, Francisco J. Santos University of Seville, Spain, Francisco Santolaya, University of Seville, Spain)